One of the environmental protection concepts in Islam is a concern for reforestation by planting and farming. Prophet Muhammad ﷺ classified the planting of trees as Sadaqah.
عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ “ مَا مِنْ مُسْلِمٍ غَرَسَ غَرْسًا فَأَكَلَ مِنْهُ إِنْسَانٌ أَوْ دَابَّةٌ إِلاَّ كَانَ لَهُ صَدَقَةً ”
Narrated Anas bin Malik: The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “If any Muslim plants any plant and a human being or an animal eats of it, he will be rewarded as if he had given that much in charity.” [Sahih al-Bukhari 6012]
There are some fundamental considerations of this reforestation program:
Wher does your food come from
فَلۡیَنظُرِ ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنُ إِلَىٰ طَعَامِه أَنَّا صَبَبۡنَا ٱلۡمَاۤءَ صَبࣰّا ثُمَّ شَقَقۡنَا ٱلۡأَرۡضَ شَقࣰّا فَأَنۢبَتۡنَا فِیهَا حَبࣰّا وَعِنَبࣰا وَقَضۡبࣰا وَزَیۡتُونࣰا وَنَخۡلࣰا وَحَدَاۤىِٕقَ غُلۡبࣰا وَفَـٰكِهَةࣰ وَأَبࣰّا مَّتَـٰعࣰا لَّكُمۡ وَلِأَنۡعَـٰمِكُمۡ
Let man, then, consider [the sources of] his food: [how it is] that We pour down water, pouring it down abundantly; and then We cleave the earth [with new growth], cleaving it asunder, and thereupon We cause grain to grow out of it, and vines and edible plants, and olive trees and date-palms, and gardens dense with foliage, and fruits and herbage, for you and for your animals to enjoy. [Abasa: 24 – 32]
Consideration of beauty
أَمَّنْ خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضَ وَأَنزَلَ لَكُم مِّنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَآءً فَأَنۢبَتْنَا بِهِۦ حَدَآئِقَ ذَاتَ بَهْجَةٍ مَّا كَانَ لَكُمْ أَن تُنۢبِتُوا۟ شَجَرَهَآ ۗ أَءِلَـٰهٌ مَّعَ ٱللَّهِ ۚ بَلْ هُمْ قَوْمٌ يَعْدِلُونَ
Nay-who is it that has created the heavens and the earth, and sends down for you [life-giving] water from the skies? For it is by this means that We cause gardens of shining beauty to grow – [whereas] it is not in your power to cause [even one single of] its trees to grow! Could there be any divine power besides God? Nay, they [who think so] are people who swerve [from the path of reason]! [An Naml: 60]
Based on the above verses, it can be seen that the expression “gardens are very beautiful,” which means people will feel cooling their eyes and heart when looking at them.
Imam al-Qurtubi said in his commentary; “Farming is part of the kifayah obligatory, the government should encourage people to do it by planting trees.”
Giving Life to the Dead Land
The land will be dead if it is abandoned and uncultivated, and not maintained for the benefit of civilization. Land is classified as being living when there is water and housing. Turning the land as designated is a priority of Islam, and those who attempt it are promised a great reward, because it is categorized as agricultural development efforts and increase the resources of production. While for those who undermine the environmental efforts by felling trees, are causing great harm to themselves and to those around them.
Consideration for the availability of fresh air
One of the most important sources of life for man is fresh air containing oxygen that is necessary for human breathing. Without oxygen, humans cannot survive.
Allah mentions several times about the wind (air) and its function in the process of water recycling and rain.
The air is a mixing gas that fills the space of earth and water vapour that enveloped all corners. Air is one of the four elements of the universe and it depends on it. The four elements are earth, water, air and fire. In the development of modern science, it has proven that these four elements are not simple matters, but a compound of various elements.